Glossary

TermDefinition
Analogue / Analog Amplifiers

Performs signal processing and amplification. Generally, an amplifier is any device that uses a small amount of energy to control a larger amount of energy.

ASCII

(American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is a character encoding based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with text. Most modern character encodings — which support many more characters — have a historical basis in ASCII.
 

ATEX

Is a standard/guideline for explosion protection in the industry. See ALA5 Versions.

AWG

American Wire Gauge also known as the "Brown and Sharpe" wire gauge, is used in the United States and other countries as a standard method of denoting wire diameter, especially for nonferrous, electrically conducting wire.

Background Noise

The total noise floor from all sources of interference in a measurement system, independent of the presence of a data signal.

Bipolar

The ability of a signal conditioner to display both positive and negative readings.

Bridge Resistance

The resistance measured across the excitation terminals of a strain gauge.

Calibration

The process of adjusting the output of a sensor chart so that it’s reading can be correlated to the actual value being measured.

CANBUS

Controller Area Network is a multicast shared serial bus standard. CAN was specifically designed to be robust in electromagnetically noisy environments and can utilize a differential balanced line like RS485.

CMR(Common-Mode Rejection)

The ability of an instrument to eliminate the effect of AC or DC noise between signal and ground. Normally expressed in dB at dc to 60 Hz. One type of CMR is specified between SIG LO and PWR GND. In differential meters, a second type of CMR is specified between SIG LO and ANA GND (METER GND).

Compensation

Is planning for side effects or other unintended issues in a design.

Deadband/hysteresis

(Hysteresis) In a digital controller, there may be one switching point at which the signal increases and another switching point at which the signal decreases. The difference between the two switching points is hysteresis.

DeviceNet

Is a digital, multi-drop network that connects and serves as a communication network between industrial controllers and I/O devices. Each device and/or controller is a node on the network.

Digital Load Cell Indicators

The digital load cell is a combination of the conventional analog load cell (usually strain gauge based) and the digital electronics that was previously housed remotely. Therefore the digital load cell is technically a hybrid product. The PSD is a Portable Digital Load Cell or Strain Gauge Indicator.

DIN Rail

A DIN rail or top-hat rail is a standardized 35 mm wide metal rail with hat-shaped cross section. It is widely used, especially in Europe, for mounting circuit breakers and industrial control equipment inside equipment racks.

Drift

A change of a reading or a set point value over long periods due to several factors including change in ambient temperature, time, and line voltage.

Dual Power Supply

For example the SGA/A can have a Dual Power Supply. An AC supply can be connected along with a DC supply for additional security.

Embedded Amplifier

Designed to be incorporated directly into strain gauge sensors such as pressure transducers, load cells and torque sensors, the ICA family offers high stability with a wide bandwidth.

Environmental Approvals

All products comply with the British Standards Institution EMC Directive 89 / 336 / EEC.
http://www.bsi-global.com

Evaluation Kits

These kits are unique to the DCell and DSC products and provide a low cost, easy way to familiarise, test and evaluate.

Excitation

The external application of electrical voltage applied to a transducer for normal operation.

Fine Adjustment

For example on the SGA. The Zero and Span calibration have a Fine Adjustment to give accuracy to the calibration. These are potentiometers P1 and P2 for span and zero respectively.

Force

Force is a push or pull on an object resulting from the objects interaction with another object. For example, a force could be a weight resting on a load cell or it could be the torque that causes a shaft to rotate.

Full Bridge

A Wheatstone bridge configuration utilizing four active elements or strain gauges.

Full Range Output

The algebraic difference between the minimum output and maximum output.

Gain

Gain is otherwise identified as SPAN. It relates to the proportional output to the sensor input. Calibration of the SGA is determined by setting the Gain (Span) and Offset (Zero).
The amount of amplification used in an electrical circuit.

Gateway

Is a computer or a network that allows or controls access to another computer or network.

Ground

In electrical engineering, something that is connected to the Earth or at the voltage defined as zero (in the U.S., called ground; in the UK, called earth)

Handheld Telemetry Indicators

Portable hand held telemetry indicators to enable data viewing. Mantracourt currently have several handheld telemetry indicators in the their T24 Wireless Telemetry range. See the T24-HS as an example. 

Hysteresis/Deadband

(Hysteresis) In a digital controller, there may be one switching point at which the signal increases and another switching point at which the signal decreases. The difference between the two switching points is hysteresis.

Indicators

Indicators and Displays are devices having a built-in means of displaying measurement values.  See the ADP and ADW for example.

 

Input Impedance

The resistance measured across the excitation terminals of a transducer.

Instrument Explorer

This software allows the user to quickly set up and start to use the digitisers and indicators that Mantracourt offers. Capabilities include event monitoring and data logging, as well as calibration and configuration.

LCD

A liquid crystal display (commonly abbreviated LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of any number of colour or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. It is prized by engineers because it uses very small amounts of electric power, and is therefore suitable for use in battery-powered electronic devices.

LED

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits incoherent narrow-spectrum light when electrically biased in the forward direction.

Linearity

The closeness of a calibration curve to a specified straight line. Linearity is expressed as the maximum deviation of any deviation point from a specified straight line during any one calibration.

Load

The electrical demand of a process expressed as power (watts), current (amps) or resistance(ohms).

Load Cell

A load cell is typically an electronic device (transducer) that is used to convert a force into an electrical signal. This conversion is indirect and happens in two stages. Through a mechanical arrangement, the force to be sensed is used in deforming a strain gauge. The strain gauge converts the deformation (strain) to electrical signals. The load cell is one of a series of Strain Gauge sensors that the SGA input is designed to accept. (Torque Sensor, Pressure & temperature transducers).  

The ICA provides an embedded amplifier designed to be incorporated into strain gauge sensors.
 

Load Cell Indicators

The load cell is for example, one of a series of Strain Gauge sensors that the SGA input is designed to accept. (Torque Sensor, Pressure & temperature transducers).

Load Impedance

The impedance presented to the output terminals of a transducer by the associated external circuitry.

Low Pass Filter

A low-pass filter is a filter that passes low frequency signals but attenuates (reduces the amplitude of) signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. The actual amount of attenuation for each frequency varies from filter to filter. The SGA Module has a low pass filter to remove unwanted signals on the output.

LVDT

The linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) is a type of electrical transformer used for measuring linear displacement.

 

Millivolt

One thousandth of a volt.

Modbus

A proprietary protocol used to communicate between electronic devices, in a manufacturing environment.

NEMA 4/ UL Type 4

A standard from the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (U.S.A.), which defines enclosures, intended for indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust and rain, splashing water, and hose-directed water.

Noise

An unwanted electrical interference on the signal wires.

Null

A condition, such as balance, which results in a minimum absolute value of output.

Offset

Offset is the value of output that exists when it should be zero.

Potentiometer

A potentiometer is a variable resistor that can be used as a voltage divider.

Potentiometer (or 'pot' for short) describes an electrical device which has a user-adjustable resistance. Usually, this is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding contact in the center (the wiper). If all three terminals are used, it can act as a variable voltage divider. If only two terminals are used (one side and the wiper), it acts as a variable resistor.

Pressure Sensor

A pressure sensor measures the pressure, typically of gases or fluids. Pressure is an expression of the force required to stop a gas or fluid from expanding, and is usually stated in terms of force per unit area. A pressure sensor generates a signal related to the pressure imposed. Typically, such a signal is electrical, but it might also include additional means, such as optic signals, visual signals and/or auditory signals

Proportional Outputs

The Voltage or Current outputs are calibrated to be directly proportional to the input from the sensor. For example the output is, within the sensor limits, taken as linear and no linearity compensation is required within the SGA.

Radio Telemetry

The latest range of Mantracourt's telemetry system allow data acquisition and control over a radio link. Devices operate on a 2.4Ghz frequency and interface via hand held displays or via PC.

Resolution

The input corresponding to a one-unit change in the least significant digit of the data acquisition /display equipment (Good resolution is not necessarily equal to good accuracy).

Sensing Element

That part of the transducer, which reacts directly in response to the input.

Sensitivity

The minimum change in input signal to which an instrument can respond.
For example, this is the relationship between the change in strain gauge output to the level or magnitude of the SGA output.

Signal Conditioner/Conditioning

A signal conditioner is a device that converts one type of electronic signal into a another type of signal. Its primary use is to convert a signal that may be difficult to read by conventional instrumentation into a more easily read format. In performing this conversion a number of functions may take place. For example:
A circuit module that offsets attenuates, amplifies, linearizes and/or filters the signal for input to an A/D converter. A typical output signal conditioning is 4-20 mA.
The SGA is essentially a Signal Conditioner –more specifically known as a Strain Gauge Amplifier - in that it conditions (alters) the input signal from a load cell to an electrical output.

Single Card Assembly

For example the SGA has only the one Printed Circuit Board assembly on which all the components are mounted.

Span

Span is otherwise identified as GAIN. It relates to the proportional output to the sensor input.

Span Adjustment

The ability to adjust the gain of a process or strain meter so that a specified display span in engineering units corresponds to a specified signal span. For instance, a display span of 200°F may correspond to the 16 mA span of a 4-20 mA transmitter signal

Stability

The quality of an instrument or sensor to maintain a consistent output when a constant input is applied.

Strain Gauge

The strain gauge is a resistance bridge device where the bridge value alters linearly and proportionally to the force exerted on it – be it temperature, pressure, torque or load. For example the SGA is designed to convert this change to a proportional electrical signal.

Tare

The 'Tare' function is used when you only wish, for example in a weighing system, to see a current change in weight, not the entire weight that is on the scale.

It can be used to remove the container weight from the Gross Weight value without changing the point of zero.

TEDS Transducer Electronic Data Sheet

The implementation of TEDS involves the placing of a miniature EEPROM chip inside the sensor (or inside the connector). Then, during calibration, the relevant data is written to the TEDS chip and any TEDS enabled indicator can then self-calibrate upon start up, by reading the TEDS data.

The IEEE 1451.4 standard defines TEDS as a truly plug and play sensor environment. Mantracourt supports TEDS on several products, including the model PSD hand held display.
PSD

Telemetry Systems

The latest range of Mantracourt's telemetry system devices allow data acquisition and control over a radio link. Devices operate on a 2.4 Ghz frequency and interface via hand held displays or via PC.

Torque Transducer

The Torque Transducer is one of a series of Strain Gauge sensors that for example, the SGA input is designed to accept. (Torque Sensor, Load Cell and Temperature transducers).

Wireless Telemetry

Telemetry typically refers to wireless communications (i.e. using a radio frequency system to implement the data link), but can also refer to data transfer over other media, such as a telephone or computer network or via an optical link.

Zero

Zero can be a null point in a sensor output or a transition point in a calibrated output between positive and negative values. Using the 'zero' function in a system sets the current value as a new Gross Zero reference point.

Zero Adjustment

The ability to adjust the display of a process or strain meter so that zero on the display corresponds to a non-zero signal, such as 4 mA, 10 mA, or 1 V dc.

Zero Offset

The difference expressed in degrees between true zero and an indication given by a measuring instrument. See Zero Suppression.

Zero Suppression

The span of the SGA can be offset from zero (zero suppressed) such that neither limit of the span will be zero. For example, an SGA which measures a load of a 100kg span from 400kg to 500kg° is said to have 400kG zero suppression.
SGA A&D
 

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